Philosophy Optional

  • Short syllabus
  • Logical and easy to follow
  • Helps in GS Paper IV (Ethics) and Essay Paper
  • Content is mostly static
  • Develops reasoning and critical thinking
  • Appeals to all students irrespective of Academic Background
  • Exhaustive coverage of Philosophy Optional Paper 1 and 2
  • Comprehensive and detailed study material
  • Interactive and thought provoking classroom sessions
  • 10 comprehensive test to track progress
  • Rigourous writing practice sessions
  • Assistance in developing Mental Maps

Paper - I

History and Problems of Philosophy:

  • Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
  • Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
  • Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
  • Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
  • Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
  • Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
  • Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
  • Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language- games; Critique of Private Language.
  • Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
  • Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
  • Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
  • Carvaka : Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
  • Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhanginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
  • Schools of Buddhism: Pratîtyasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada
  • Nyaya- Vaisesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramana; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
  • Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
  • Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
  • Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge
  • Schools of Vedanta: Brahman; Îsvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
  • Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.
Reference books:

Western Philosophy

  • A Critical Survey of Western Philosophy -Y. Masih
  • A History of Philosophy - F. Thilly
  • Contemporary Western Philosophy- D.M Dutta
  • History of Philosophy - B.Russell
  • An introduction to Western Philosophy-D.Palmer
  • IGNOU materials.
  • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Dictionary of Philosophy.

Indian Philosophy

  • An Introduction to Indian Philosophy –Dutta and Chatterjee
  • A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy – C.D Sharma
  • IGNOU materials.
  • Dictionary of Philosophy

Paper – II

Socio-Political Philosophy:

    Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
    Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
    Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
    Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
    Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
    Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
    Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
    Development and Social Progress.
    Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land and Property Rights; Empowerment.
    Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar
Reference Books
  • Social and Political Philosophy –O.P Gauba
  • NCERT Books
  • IGNOU material
  • Stanford Encyclopedia on Philosophy
  • Dictionary of Philosophy

Philosophy of Religion:

  • Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
  • Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
  • Problem of Evil.
  • Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
  • Reason, Revelation and Faith.
  • Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
  • Religion without God.
  • Religion and Morality.
  • Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
  • Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitive and Non-cognitive.

Reference Books

  • Introduction to Religious Philosophy –Y. Masih
  • Philosophy of Religion- John Hick
  • IGNOU material
  • Stanford Encyclopedia on Philosophy
  • Dictionary of Philosophy

We also provide Geography Optional in Enlite IAS, Trivandrum and Calicut Kerala.

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