India - Russia Relation - India - Russia Relation -

India – Russia Relation

India – Russia Relation
  • India and Russia are considered two poles of global geopolitics which maintain an all-weather friendship with very minor problems.
  • Let’s Make a Travel Through Events of India – Russia Relation. 

Areas of Cooperation 

Political Relation

  • India – Russia maintain their cordial relationship from time to time through engagement in high-level summits. Some of the notable summits include Sochi Summit which took place in 2018 and the Vladivostok summit in 2019.
  • Other ways of engaging include the establishment of the India – Russia intergovernmental commission and cooperation in the case of the Syrian crisis.
  • The most recent engagement with Russia is initiating a form of 2+2 dialogue that results in the signing of many landmark agreements like 
  • The two sides signed two contracts for the manufacture of AK-203 rifles under a joint venture in Amethi, Uttar Pradesh.
  • The two countries also signed an agreement for military technology cooperation for the next decade, from 2021 to 2031.
  • Reciprocal Exchange of Logistics Agreement (RELOS), as well as a Navy-to-Navy cooperation MoU are at the advanced stages of conclusion.
  • Two countries also signed the Protocol of the 20th India-Russia Intergovernmental Commission on Military & Military Technical Cooperation (IRIGC-MTC).
  • As we analyse the relationship between India – and Russia we can identify events of reciprocal support that include 
  • Russian support during the 1971 Indo-Pak war and India not voting in the UN against the USSR when human rights allegations came.
  • The most recent one is India’s absence from the UN voting against Russia in the limelight of the Ukraine invasion and engagement of Russia in the oil trade.
  • Other Political Support Provide by Russia
  • Russia supports India for permanent membership in the United Nations Security Council.
  • Russia backed India’s membership in the Nuclear Supply Group.
  • India and Russia share a common issue like
  • Terrorism that Chechiyan rebels in Russia and China supported insurgency in Northeast India, and Pakistan supported extremist groups in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The global dominance of the USA led the Western world in geopolitics.  
  • Common international platforms shared between India and Russia are 
  • BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa)
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO)
  • G2O
  • United Nations
  • Australia Group
  • Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)
  • India-Russia-Japan trilateral consultations

Defence Relation 

  • In the field of defence, India and Russia have a long-standing and broad partnership, with Russia providing over 60% of India’s defence equipment but in recent days India is diversifying arms procurement from countries like USA, Israel etc..
  • Some of the major defence deals between India – and Russia are 
  • T70 , T 90 Tanks during 1970 – 90
  • Procurement of Kiev class aircraft carrier ( INS Vikramaditya) in 2000
  • Russia has made technology transfer to India for production weapons like BrahMos Missile System  , SU-30 aircraft.
  • Indian procurement of weapons like Ka-226T helicopters, igla missiles , S – 400 air defence system.
  • Joint Military Exercise between both countries are 
  • INDIRA – Army Exercise
  • Avi INDIRA – Air Exercise

Economic Relation

  • Intensifying trade and economic relations have been identified as a priority area by both the leaders. 
  • The targets of increasing bilateral investment were revised to US $50 billion and bilateral trade to US $30 billion by 2025.
  • Russia is one of the main partners of India’s Make in India initiative.
  • Joint investment in projects by both countries are
  • Operationalization of the ‘Green Corridor’ project
  • International North-South Transport Corridor
  • Institutional mechanisms for economic development like 
  • India-Russia Intergovernmental Commission for Trade, Economic, Scientific & Cultural Cooperation (IRIGC-TEC)
  • India-Russia Strategic Economic Dialogue (IRSED)
  • Major items of export from India include electrical machinery, pharmaceuticals, organic chemicals, iron & steel, apparels, tea, coffee, and vehicle spare parts. 
  • Major items of import from Russia include defense equipment, mineral resources, precious stones and metals, nuclear power equipment, fertilizers, electrical machinery, articles of steel, and inorganic chemicals.
  • As part of boosting trade India – Russia has currency swap mechanism which also bypass US dominated SWIFT mechanism

Cooperation in the Area of Science and Tech 

  • Major landmark steps taken are 
  • Russia give technology support to the Kudankulam Nuclear plant
  • Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS provides training to Indian astronauts as part of the Gaganyan project
  • Joint Arctic expedition
  • The Monex expedition to study monsoons was conducted in 1973.
  • Support for navigation by GLONASS  as an alternative to USA-powered GPS
  • Traditional Knowledge Digital Library.

Cultural Relation 

  • Cultural exchange programs like the teaching of Indian languages to Russian people and Russian to Indians.
  • Russian’s studies on yoga, and Ayurveda in India.
  • Educational exchange programs like the AIM-SIRIUS program.

Joint Fight Against Covid 19

  • During the crisis of covid India supplied many life-saving medicines to Russia as part of the Vande Bharat Mission and in return, Russia provided Sputnik vaccines.

Significance of Russia for India

  • To act as a pressure builder on China which was evident during the Galwan clash, where Russia called for mediation.
  • Russia is significant for arms and technology supply 
  • Source of investment in Make in India
  • Source of cheap crude oil for India that is evident during the Ukraine crisis.

Issues in Relation

  • Russia – Pakistan  – China nexus and conducting joint exercises.
  • Supply of S 400 to Russia
  • India’s US tilt by engaging multiple platforms like QUAD. Purchasing US arms like Apache.

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